It’s all about engine oil
The right choice of engine oil depends on the longevity of internal combustion engines. The oil lubricates the movement and friction of the engine parts, thus protecting it from thermal, mechanical and chemical influences.
The engine oil should be chosen strictly according to the recommendations of the car manufacturer, which are specified in the manual for the operation of your car. If you do not have a book on the operation of the car, then you can find out the required amount of oil from the official representatives of the brand or from the official suppliers of spare parts for your car. But keep in mind that oils are selected based on the engine, not the car brand. One manufacturer can use different engines in their car brands.
The type of engine oil (chemical composition), the SAE viscosity class, the choice of API and ACEA additives vary according to the manufacturer's permission.
The chemical composition of the oily base
Synthetic motor oil is a substance obtained by chemical reactions. Unlike other types of oils, synthetic oils are not affected by external factors and do not change over time. Initially, synthetic motor oil was used only in aviation because the stable synthesis did not freeze and heat up at the limit temperatures and was able to provide stable operation even under any changing conditions. Now it is used in the automotive industry, but the price of synthetic oils is higher than the price of other oils. Synthesis is not suitable for high-speed engines. If the temperature in your area is below -15 ° C, you can choose a semi-synthetic or mineral oil with the required parameters. They just need to be replaced more often with synthetic oils.
Semi-synthetic oils are mineral oils (70%) that do not contain synthetic additives (30%). It is better than mineral oil. Price also matches quality. Semi-synthetic oil is poured into modern engines when the consumption of synthetic oil is increased. When replacing synthetic oils, it is likely that mineral oils will be selected from among the semi-synthetic oils with the required parameters.
Mineral oil is the most affordable motor oil obtained by refining oil at high temperatures. It differs from other oils by its flexibility. Suitable for cars with a range of more than 150,000 km. It needs to be replaced every 10,000 km. Not resistant to high temperatures.
Washing oil is used to wash and lubricate the engine and other lubricating parts. The engine is washed when the engine oil brand, manufacturer, viscosity or type is changed. The engine is cleaned of poor quality fuel, antifreeze or oil, as well as after any opening of the cylinder head. Shelf life of washing oil: one injection.
SAE elasticity class
Oil viscosity is, in simple terms, the ability of an oil to lubricate engine parts and remain on their surface when the temperature changes.
SAE is an abbreviation for the American Association of Automotive Engineers, which developed the classification of engine oil for viscosity.
Several numbers follow the abbreviation SAE on the engine oil label or characteristic. Between them is the letter W. It states that the engine oil is suitable for all seasons.
All-season motor oil - does not change viscosity with temperature. Mark: SAE 5W-30, SAE 10W-40, SAE 15W-40, SAE 20W-50.
The number on one of the symbols identifies the low temperature elasticity. You need to subtract 40 from this number and you get the minimum temperature of this oil. For example, with SAE 5W-30 oil, the engine runs smoothly at temperatures below -35 ° C (5 - 40 = -35).
The inverse of the second number after the letter W represents high-temperature elasticity. It is not possible to determine this number independently. One thing is certain: the higher this number, the higher the viscosity of the oil at high temperatures
Only the manufacturer of your car knows that the high temperature elasticity is right for your car. All the necessary specifications for your engine are listed in the operating manual that is attached to your vehicle at the time of purchase.
Summer engine oil is thicker than winter. It lubricates well at high temperatures, and at low temperatures it condenses and stops lubricating. Mark: SAE 30, SAE 40, SAE 50.
Winter engine oil - less thick, not viscous. It becomes liquid from heat and cannot be lubricated. Symbol: SAE 5W, SAE 10W, SAE 15W, SAE 20W.
API and ACEA add-ons
Engine oil is a mixture of oil and additive. The oil itself is oily and lubricating; but its resistance to temperature and other conditions determines its set of add-ons as an effective way to protect the engine under these conditions. Additives are flexible-thickening, anti-corrosion, antioxidant and others. Every engine, whether gasoline or diesel, requires a special set of additives in the engine oil. Therefore, motor oils are classified into gasoline and diesel like engines.
The American Petroleum Institute (API) classifies oils as follows: "S" is motor oil for gasoline engines, and "S" is for diesel. The numbers and letters from "S" and "S" indicate the year of manufacture of the engine. There are also motor oils that can be used for both types of engines. Example of designation of universal engine oil: API SJ / Cf-4.
ACEA is an abbreviation for the European Manufacturers Association. The European classification of oils is also written in letters and numbers. The letters (A, B, C, E) indicate the engine type, and the numbers (1 to 5) describe the oil. The higher the number, the better the oil. The new Class C oils, Euro-4 flue gases, meet strict environmental requirements.